Sabine T. Koeszegi
Is Human Autonomy Endangered by Algorithmic Decision Support?
Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) is considered to be a transformative force that is bound to fundamentally change our professional, private, and social lives. AI systems support physicians in diagnosing diseases, they help judges to set bails, they suggest potential candidates to be hired to recruiters, and instead of bank clerks, AI systems decide whether or not a customer is granted a loan. Furthermore, our personal AI assistants on our smartphones and in our homes recommend – based on automatically learned preferences – suitable products and services, songs, and even potential love and sex partners. Algorithms decide which news we see in our personal news feeds, and often – without being aware – we are nudged and herded into certain behaviors rather than others by these systems. These new applications of algorithmic decision making blur the boundaries between automated decisions and decision support. As prediction machines, data-driven AI systems have the capacity to produce accurate and reliable classifications and forecasts reducing uncertainty and complexity of decision problems. With the help of algorithms, decisions should become more objective, efficient, faster and fairer. But the transfer of decision making to autonomous systems comes at the cost of transparency and human autonomy without necessarily avoiding human biases. System robustness, transparency and explainability of AI systems are key for safeguarding fundamental human rights such as human autonomy. In my talk I will address social, societal and ethical challenges associated with the application of black box algorithms in decision support and discuss requirements for an ethically aligned system design.
Short Bio: Sabine T. Koeszegi is Full Professor of Labor Science and Organization at the TU Wien and Academic Director of the MBA Program Entrepreneurship and Innovation. She received her PhD in Social Sciences from the University of Vienna. Her research focus is in the intersection of work, technology and organization. Sabine Koeszegi is a member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. Since 2017 she is chair of the Austrian Council on Robotics and Artificial Intelligence. As a member of the High-level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence of the European Commission, she has co-authored the European Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI published in 2019.
Network analysis of international conflicts
Abstract: Network analysis has become one of the powerful instruments in studies of social phenomena. One of the main components of network analysis consists in the analysis of most influential elements in the network made using so-called centrality indices. However, classic centrality indices do not take into account several important features of elements’ interactions such as parameters of vertices in a network, an influence of group of vertices to one vertex, the fixed length of influence of one vertex to another one. We propose a family of new indices taking into account all these features, and use them in the analysis of international conflicts from 1946 to 2017. One of the specific features of this work is that we include in this analysis internal conflicts which sometimes have crucial influence to the intensity of international conflicts, and we study the stability of these networks using new stability measures.
Short Bio: Fuad Aleskerov (National Research University Higher School of Economics and Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)